Nicotinamide mononucleotide is a nucleotide found in fruits, vegetables, beans, legumes and edamame. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of NAD+. In eukaryotes, NMN is synthesized from nicotinamide riboside by the action of the NAMPT enzyme.
NMN is a highly-efficient source of NAD+. The NAD+-producing enzymes require NMN to complete their activity. Some enzymes are deficient in NMN, and NMN supplementation can improve these enzymes. NMN supplements also enhance NAD+ levels in the body.
During aging, levels of NAD+ decrease and this leads to a variety of complications. NMN has been used in research to determine its therapeutic value in the treatment of age-related diseases. However, more clinical studies are needed.
One of the major concerns in using NMN is the cost. Several studies have been conducted to determine the most economical method of producing NMN. Many have used simple biotechnological processes, including yeast, which have been shown to be inexpensive.
Another concern is that NMN may have negative effects on organs. Studies have shown that NMN can cause gastrointestinal upset and flushing. Furthermore, it can have hepatotoxicity. Additionally, studies have shown that NMN can cause adverse effects on pancreatic b-cells. Despite these limitations, NMN has been shown to be effective in alleviating behavioural dysfunctions and ameliorating cognitive decline.
Several studies have shown that NMN has a positive effect on cardiovascular health. NMN reduces myocardial injury and can improve myocardial function. Moreover, NMN increases extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase concentrations. This may be important in attenuating myocardial injury.