Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a compound with a number of bioactive properties. It has the ability to bind to proteins in the human body. This binding is accomplished through a combination of carboxylic and carbonyl groups. In addition, it is thought to support redox reactions, which can help mitochondria to produce energy.
PQQ is present in plants and animals. It is found in human milk at a level of 15%. However, the concentration in foods may not be the same as the total bioactive amount.
The human body contains a number of proteins that bind to PQQ, including quinoproteins. These proteins are important in the regulation of protein synthesis. They have the capacity to modify the structure of other proteins. Aside from its effects on quinoproteins, PQQ is also associated with immuno- and neuroprotection.
PQQ has been shown to support redox reactions in the body. In fact, it can help reduce lipid peroxidation. At the same time, it can improve memory and cognitive functioning.
Moreover, it has been reported to boost the production of mitochondria in the animal. In other words, it is an antioxidant. As such, it is thought to be an important nutrient for healthy individuals.
Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether Pyrroloquinoline quinone is actually an enzymatic cofactor for humans. Unlike B vitamins, there is no clear evidence that PQQ actually serves as a cofactor for the enzymes in our bodies.
However, preliminary studies indicate that it might play a role in other mammals. For example, in rats, it prevented oxidative stress-induced cognitive deficit. Likewise, it was found to be a positive influence on peripheral sciatic nerve regeneration.