Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a redox cofactor which has been shown to protect mitochondria from oxidative stress. It is a natural antioxidant and a component of interstellar dust. PQQ also has anti-inflammatory properties. Besides acting as an antioxidant, it has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects.
It is found in soil, fruits, kiwifruits, papayas, and kiwifruits. It is produced by fermentation or bacteria. It is used by plants for growth, energy, and cellular regeneration. In addition to this, it is often used as a dietary supplement for memory, cognitive health, and overall brain health.
Initially, PQQ was identified as a redox cofactor for bacterial dehydrogenases. It is now known to act as a redox cofactor for glucose dehydrogenases, ethanol dehydrogenases, and polyol dehydrogenases. However, the enzymes involved are different from each other.
The enzymes involved in quino- and quinohemoproteins are divided into catalytic subunits, which have radial symmetry. They also contain a prosthetic group, heme c. These proteins form protein complexes. A single quinoprotein contains a heme c-like prosthetic group, while a quinohemoprotein contains an electron acceptor.
In addition to its redox functions, PQQ has also been shown to modulate the signaling process of cells. It has been shown to interact with certain proteins, such as PGC-1 alpha. This reduces free radicals, and it has also been shown to prevent certain harmful proteins from binding to the cell.
In order to assess the safety of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt, the European Food Safety Authority has requested more information from the applicant. It has also been agreed to carry out an additional assessment of the novel food in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97.